Application layer

Within the conceptual Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) framework that characterizes the functions of a networking communication system, the application layer acts as the interface directly supporting software applications and end-user processes. It provides the service capabilities that allow one program to effectively communicate and exchange information with another application across the network.

The application layer establishes the necessary rules, protocols and data manipulation services that application software depends on to initiate communication sessions, format data for transmission, and interact with remote processes. It handles high-level semantics and syntax for organizing data for inter-application communication, shielding the underlying complexities of the network. This uppermost layer enables the interoperability and information sharing required for distributed applications to meaningfully interconnect and interwork across the network infrastructure.

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